Q: Why do experts think that bilateral immunity agreements are contrary to international law? Yesterday, Foreign Minister Colin L. Powell signed an Article 98 agreement with Kazakhstan. This is the third signing of article 98 in the past five days, with Colombia and Solomon Islands also having concluded such agreements. With these signatures, the total number of countries that have concluded agreements with the United States under Article 98 is 63. Several other nations are expected to sign agreements in the coming weeks. In the 109th Congress, another bill, H.R. 5995 (Engel), was introduced, which would have ended all restrictions on U.S. aid to ICC member countries that do not have Article 98 agreements. Had it been passed, the law would have required the repeal of the ASPA and the Nethercutt Amendment. On September 30, 27, 2006, the Senate unanimously approved a conference report on defense authorization for the GJ 2007, H.R. 5122/S. .